ARCHAEOLOGY

ARCHAEOLOGY
Restored family houses from the talmudic era (3rd5th centuries C.E.) found at Kaerin in the Golan Heights. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. found at Kaerin in the Golan Heights. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.") Restored family houses from the talmudic era (3rd–5th centuries C.E.) found at Kaẓerin in the Golan Heights. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     \<!   \> \!masadabackdrop of the aerial view of herods reconstructed palace. "" albatross aerial photography. Masada—Backdrop of the aerial view of Herod's reconstructed palace. Photo: Albatross Aerial Photography.     A mosaic of the Galilean Mona Lisa, found at Zippori, early 3rd century C.E. Photo: Dinu Mendrea. A mosaic of the "Galilean" Mona Lisa, found at Zippori, early 3rd century C.E. Photo: Dinu Mendrea.     Bas relief of a menorah from the 3rd century C.E., Bet Shearim, which became a center of Jewish learning as attested in rabbinic literature. Photo: Hanan Isachar. Bas relief of a menorah from the 3rd century C.E., Bet She'arim, which became a center of Jewish learning as attested in rabbinic literature. Photo: Hanan Isachar.   A capital from the synagogue in Kaerin with symbols of the menorah and the four species, from the talmudic era (3rd5th centuries C.E.) Photo Katzerin Museum, Israel. Photo Katzerin Museum, Israel.") A capital from the synagogue in Kaẓerin with symbols of the menorah and the four species, from the talmudic era (3rd'5th centuries C.E.) Photo © Katzerin Museum, Israel.     Interior of the Shrine of the Book housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, designed by American architects Armand Bartos and Frederick Kiesler. Photo: Hanan Isachar. Interior of the Shrine of the Book housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem, designed by American architects Armand Bartos and Frederick Kiesler. Photo: Hanan Isachar.   Isaiah scroll, 1st C. B.C.E.1st C. C.E., one of the Dead Sea scrolls found in Cave 1 at Qumran. The Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris. Isaiah scroll, 1st C. B.C.E.–1st C. C.E., one of the Dead Sea scrolls found in Cave 1 at Qumran. The Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo ' The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by David Harris.     Street lined by Roman columns in the Amphitheater of Bet Shean, destroyed in 749 C.E. and restored by archaeologists. Photo: Dinu Mendrea. Street lined by Roman columns in the Amphitheater of Bet She'an, destroyed in 749 C.E. and restored by archaeologists. Photo: Dinu Mendrea.   The ruins of Kazerin, a talmudic village in the Golan Heights. Photo: Hanan Isachar. The ruins of Kazerin, a talmudic village in the Golan Heights. Photo: Hanan Isachar.   Remains of the aram Synagogue in the Golan Heights, 3rd century C.E. Photo: Dinu Mendrea. Remains of the Ḅar'am Synagogue in the Golan Heights, 3rd century C.E. Photo: Dinu Mendrea.     Remains of the ancient Nabatean city of Shivta, which flourished mainly in the 4th to 6th centuries C.E. Shivta was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2005. Photo: Hanan Isachar. Remains of the ancient Nabatean city of Shivta, which flourished mainly in the 4th to 6th centuries C.E. Shivta was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2005. Photo: Hanan Isachar.     Central medallion of the synagogue pavement (5th6th century C.E.)..") Central medallion of the synagogue pavement (5th–6th century C.E.). The birds are depicted in the new, more orthodox abstract approach of Jewish art in the Byzantine period, breaking away from the naturalistic forms of the earlier Hellenistic period. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   archaeology Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 15 NAT–PER FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this product, submit your request via Web at http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department <address> Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning 27500 Drake Road Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 </address> Permissions Hotline: (+1) 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006 Fax: (+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgments constitute an extension of the copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries NAT–PER 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 801 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 802 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 808 • Transliteration Rules 821 Glossary 824 NATANSON, LUDWIK NATANSON, LUDWIK (1822–1896), physician and communal worker. A member of the Jewish intellectual and assimilationist circle of Warsaw, Natanson was the son of the banker and industrialist Wolf Zelig Natanson (1795–1879). In 1847 he founded the periodical Tygodnik Lekarski, one of the first modern medical publications in Polish, which he edited and financed until 1872. Natanson was also one of the public health pioneers in Poland, and was active in the campaign against the cholera epidemic in Warsaw (1848–52). In 1863 he was elected to the presidency of the Polish medical society. In 1871 he became chairman of the executive of the Jewish community of Warsaw, a position he held until his death. As chairman, Natanson successfully reorganized and considerably extended the public and administrative services of the community, managing also to balance its budget. He encouraged productivity among the Jewish poverty-stricken classes and was the initiator and founder of vocational schools and a community workshop center. He supported (1878–88) the secondary school which had 1,400 Jewish pupils. On his initiative, a new school building was erected, and community organizations and the cemeteries were renovated. He was the initiator of a project to erect a modern Jewish hospital in the Czyste district, and it was also during his term of office that the magnificent synagogue of Tłomacka Street was built. In 1874 Natanson obtained authorization to establish a Jewish seminary for teachers. He was supported in his public activities by bourgeois circles and the assimilationist Jewish intelligentsia. The energy which he showed during the pogrom in Warsaw in December 1881 was of great assistance in maintaining the morale of the Jewish community. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Shatzky, Geshikhte fun Yidn in Varshe, 2–3 (1948–53), indexes; H. Nussbaum, Teki weterana warszawskiej gminy Starozakonnych (1880), 46–50; W. Konie, in: Głos gminy żydowskiej nos. 4–5 (1937); S. LŁastik, Z dziejów oświecenia żydowskiego (1961), index; Lu'aḥ Aḥi'asaf, 5 (1897). (Arthur Cygielman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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